Myth: Hold Your Nose — Composting Stinks!

“Hold Your Nose!”—Said No Real-Life Composter We Talked To, Ever

Every nose has its own unique point of view, er, smell—but all are likely to turn themselves up at the smell of rotting trash. Why then would we assault our nasal passages by composting, aka, piling up a bunch of food and plant waste with the express goal of, gasp, purposefully letting it rot?

Answering the why is easy: For one thing, composting turns nutrient-rich food waste back into food for the garden, and, by reducing food waste headed to landfill, takes some heat off the earth’s atmosphere by reducing methane emissions. But before we get into a full-blown love song about composting, it’s time to set the record straight about the stink.IRL-Composter-Corina

“It only stinks if you’re not doing it right,” says Eliza Fournier, of the Chicago Botanic Garden. “After people read this article, they will do it right. Therefore composting doesn’t smell!”

As the leader of the Garden’s Windy City Harvest Youth Farm program, Fournier would know if compost-related nose plugs were a common request (they’re not). She oversees the Garden’s Youth Farm sites, which provide urban farming jobs to youth in food desert communities, giving them hands-on experience in the gardens—and in the compost piles around them, too.

The Feds back up the case against the need for nose-plugging, too, promising on the EPA website that a properly managed compost bin “will not smell bad.”

Still, because every aforementioned nose is indeed different, we also turned to Facebook for some first-hand accounts. Does your composting stink, we asked you? “No!” Was the resounding answer. (For more of what these real-life, non-professional composters said, check out the IRL stories sprinkled throughout this article.)

It’s Easy to Bench the Stench

Healthy outdoor compost is easy to maintain, explains Fournier. “It’s like making a parfait,” except you’re layering in nitrogen, carbon, air, and water.IRL-Composter-Becky

Fournier’s Plain Ol’ Compost Recipe

Ingredients:

  • Greens, including fruit and veggie scraps, coffee grounds, and fresh grass clippings to bring in the nitrogen
  • Browns, like dried leaves, twigs, straw, and pine needles to serve up carbon
  • Heat, water, air
  • Optional: Top soil for a little dose of tiny, hungry arthropods to help accelerate decomposition
  • SKIP: Meat, fish, and dairy—the most common culprits in smelly piles

* Note: Quantities are irrelevant in this easy-does-it recipe. Directions:

  1. Alternate greens and browns of different sizes.
  2. Add in water when the pile seems dry.
  3. Stir every couple of weeks to add air.
  4. Sit back, watch, and maintain balance!
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Talk about hands-on learning! Composting looks like fun at the North Lawndale Youth Farm. (Chicago Botanic Garden photo)

“It’s almost like having a pet,” muses Fournier. “If your pet is looking lethargic, or panting a lot, he probably needs some water. Oh, he smells a little? Maybe he needs a bath… “With composting, you start to do the same. It looks depleted? Give it some food. It’s a little crunchy? Give it water. Too wet? Hold the water!”

Like plants, pets, anything you care for, it’s natural to want to observe it, and as you do, you’ll be able to diagnose any issues pretty quickly.IRL-Composter-Tiffany

Still, you don’t need to be “super precious” about your compost, she says. “The most important thing is balance. Everything in moderation in terms of greens, browns, soil, water, and air—not too much of any one thing.”

So, let’s say you strike out big time in terms of balance and somehow, against all odds…your compost does stink? Never fear! Fournier says even if stink happens, you can stop it pretty quickly.

“Usually it starts smelling is if it has too many greens or is too wet. The way you deal with that is to add more browns to counter-act greens, stop watering, and get some air circulation in there.” Not enough dried leaves around this time of year? No worries. Add non-glossy paper or cardboard.

As for the inside portion of the affair, just keep scraps in a lidded container and take ’em out every day. Apartment dwellers can try worm bins, aka vermicomposting systems, which are also non-stinky, and in Fournier’s opinion, even easier than composting proper.

Hook, Line, and Non-Stinker: Composting FTW

Okay, so composting doesn’t stink. But that’s not the only thing it has going in its favor. We can all help reduce food waste, improve our gardens and selves, and even combat climate change, simply by returning our food scraps to the earth in an awesome way.IRL-Composter-Kristin2 How awesome? Let’s count the ways:

  • Beating food waste: According to the EPA, food scraps and yard waste make up 20-30 percent of our nation’s trash. In 2013, we threw away more than 35 million tons of food waste, roughly 95 percent of which ended up in landfills or combustion facilities. You don’t need to watch a sad infomercial about world hunger to know that making the most of food is a good thing.
  • Combating climate change: All that soil-friendly food waste we trash not only takes up space in the landfill, it also becomes a significant source of methane, one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases, and therefore a big bad wolf in the story of global warming.
  • Souping up gardens, on the cheap: Compost improves soil health and structure by suppressing plant diseases and pests, and supporting water retention to reduce the need for extra water and fertilizers. It’s also great for city-dwellers whose soil may need extra love when it comes to nitrogen composition in the soil, adds Fournier. Oh, and it’s free.
  • Feel-good fun!: How cool that you can not only waste less food, but you also have more reason to get outside? asks Fournier. Plus, she enthuses, turning your compost pile is a great workout. “It’s great for your core—those little muscles on your side!” It’s also just plain interesting, like a little science experiment right in your backyard.
Grunsfeld Growing Garden 2012May22_6127

Who said you can’t have stylin’ composting bins? (Chicago Botanic Garden)

To make sure we covered all our bases in terms of potential stinkage and likely benefits, we also turned to a real-life farmer.

“Your pile won’t stink,” confirms Audra Lewicki of Dirt Doll, an urban farm in Chicago, “as long as you’ve got a good mix of greens and browns, water, and air.

“It’s important for us to compost because we get to put all those nutrients back into the soil and avoid using up precious fossil fuels to haul them to a landfill. It kills me to think of our nutrient-rich turnip tops and dandelion greens sitting under heaps of plastic bags for decades in a landfill.”

Good point, Dirt Doll. We can all take a deep breath and help save the world, one non-smelly, composted food scrap at a time.

Myth Outcome: Busted

Composting doesn’t stink—if you stick to the basics. The only thing that might stink? The trash, when it’s unnecessarily full of all those food scraps that could’ve been composted!

One Green Thing

OneGreenThing-EcoMyths-CompostAs a first step to composting, measure how much compostable food you throw away during the week. Not only will this will help motivate you to set up your composting system, it will also give you a sense of how big an area or system you need to set up.

How? Use a food storage container (or several, depending) to store non-meat food scraps for a week. Assuming you don’t already have a compost system in place to add these scraps to each day, you’ll want to refrigerate this so it can accumulate without stinking up the kitchen. (Typically you’d want to move scraps to their composting system every day, so they’re not just hanging out on the counter.)

At the end of the week, weigh the storage container. Measure your own Multiplier Effect by multiplying the weight by 365. It adds up!

One Green Thing Composting Resources

Need composting starter items? Our composting gurus weighed in with some tips.

  • IRL composter Kristen U. recommends this simple lidded trashcan for storing food scraps in the kitchen
  • IRL composter Tiffany P. says biodegradable BioBags are great for keeping kitchen containers smell-free in cities lucky enough to have composting pickup services
  • IRL composter Becky S. simply drilled some holes into a black storage bin to layer her greens and browns. (Though her dream is to have a two-compartment tumbler…)
  • Eliza F. recommends buying or making your own three-bin compost bin system if you live in an area where an open pile would be too tempting for wildlife to resist

When you know more about how big a system you need, you’re ready to advance to the next level: read the quick how-to on setting up a compost pile, courtesy of the Chicago Botanic Garden guide.

The Multiplier Effect

The average U.S. citizen generates 4.4 pounds of waste a day, roughly two-thirds of which is compostable, according to Duke University’s Center for Sustainability & Commerce. That means each of us who starts composting now could, in a single year, keep a half a ton of food waste out of landfills.

IRL Multiplier Effect: Thanks to the waste-busting combo of composting and recycling, IRL composter Kristin U. has cut her household of two’s actual garbage output down to a single 10-gallon trash bag per month.

Do You Need to Wash Your Recycling?

It’s time we had a little talk. Sometimes in life, we have dirty things we want to, ahem, recycle. This can mean we have to rinse containers before recycling them…except for when we don’t. Well, it’s certainly clearer than it used to be. But, the need to rinse really depends on the local recycling provider in your area. More often than not, though, a light rinsing is called for.

It used to be that some cities, such as Chicago, didn’t need residents to rinse their recyclables. The services took on the job of cleaning recyclable materials themselves. But Chicago and more areas like it now ask residents to remove the bulk of food residue.

This change is likely due to the potential contamination of paper, now that many recyclers have moved to curbside “single stream” recycling – where glass, plastic, paper and cardboard no longer need to be sorted into separate bins at home.

Another benefit of rinsing is that good washing helps deter rats and insects from trying to get at the recyclables before pick-up.

Even within facilities operated by the same waste management company, rules vary by location. That’s because the washing, sorting, and recycling equipment is continually being upgraded, improving its ability to handle more types of containers.

How Clean Do Those Containers Need to Be?

But it’s not that complicated. Waste Management, Inc. the largest recycling company in the world, says this about rinsing recyclable containers:

While all bottles, cans, and containers should be clean, dry, and free of most food waste before you place them in your recycling container, they don’t need to be spotless. The goal is to make sure they are clean enough to avoid contaminating other materials, like paper. Try using a spatula to scrape cans and jars, or using a small amount of water, shake the container to remove most residue.

Republic Services, Inc., another of the largest recyclers in the U.S., provides some simple recycling rinsing guidelines, and very easy to understand reasons for the rinse:

“Recyclables must be empty, clean and dry to prevent the contamination of other recyclables in the collection truck and at the recycling processing center. 

One ketchup bottle or not quite empty milk carton can cause your entire bin of otherwise perfectly recyclable items to be contaminated. Why? Because if the milk or ketchup leaks onto any paper, the paper is no longer recyclable. In some cases, the load won’t be accepted at many commercial processors. So, yes, it may end up in the trash.

“Unfortunately, contaminated materials have to be sent to the landfill, making your recycling efforts null and void.” But it’s easy to prevent this from happening by following these three steps:

Rinsing Recyclable Containers – Three Easy Steps

Step #1 – Empty.  
First, empty all liquid and residue from food and beverage containers. This makes a big difference for the next step.     

Step #2 – Clean.
Once excess liquids or solids are removed, give the containers a quick rinse – if needed – to clear any remaining residue. A rinse is usually needed for packaging that held milk, juice, sauces and condiments. A thorough wash isn’t called for, even here. No dish soap is necessary – a quick rinse and swish will do! 

Step #3 – Dry.
Now that your recyclables are empty and clean – let them dry out. They can sit upside down in the sink for a bit. Just don’t put wet containers in the bin.
And don’t stress if a little water remains. The rule of thumb is to never leave more than a teaspoon of liquid in a container. This will usually evaporate before your recyclables get picked up. 

Fortunately the answer in other areas is just a click away, thanks to Earth911’s recycling database, also available by app, which has compiled nationwide guidelines by zip code. Just enter the container type you want to recycle, and your ZIP code, and the search will identify the recycling facilities available for you. Then, check out the recycler’s guidelines.

As you’ll note, these recycling guidelines almost always say, “Please empty and rinse all containers and do not flatten containers.”

Why Aren’t Rinsing Requirements Consistent?

Why do the service requirements differ at all? And what happens if you don’t follow your local guidelines? We posed those and other questions to Eric Masanet, PhD, a Northwestern University Energy and Resource Systems Analysis Laboratory professor and researcher, and editor-in-chief of science journal Resources, Conservation and Recycling. His short take: It’s smart to follow the rinsing guidelines in your area, but not necessary to stress if you sometimes forget.

What happens if you don’t rinse recycling?

One big FAQ from people whose recycling service recommends rinsing is what happens when you forget to do it. Will your jar/bottle/can/what-have-you end up in a landfill anyway?It’s a valid question given that Waste Management, which manages half the country’s curbside recycling programs, used to state on its website that one dirty item can contaminate thousands of pounds of collected plastics. These days, WM just advises, “While all bottles, cans and containers should be clean, dry and free of most food waste before you place them in your recycling container, they don’t need to be spotless. “

But, yes, as Republic Services’ website says, “One ketchup bottle or not quite empty milk carton can cause your entire bin of otherwise perfectly recyclable items to be contaminated.”

So, please go ahead and rinse out any remaining liquids, in particular.

But the fact that an item is contaminated doesn’t relegate it to landfill status, explains Masanet. The recycling facility will use a mix of people and machines to sort then purify or clean everything according to type. Metal is the least sensitive to contaminants, he says, while plastic is so easily contaminated that even residue from a label can alter its chemistry and affect the quality of the recycled material in the end—exactly why recycling facilities have robust cleaning processes in place.

The real issue here is contamination of paper products in the same recycling bin. So, it’s more important to remove liquids than solids, like peanut butter.

More Reasons to Rinse Recyclable materials

Another downside of dirty recyclables is that contaminated recycled material has less market value—which means the recycling service provider has less to spend on things like improving service and green technology. So even though the recycling police won’t arrest you for not rinsing, Masanet advises complying with local guidelines so that the system is most efficient.

Curious about how recycling works once it leaves your bin? Take this video tour of a single stream recycling facility in Philly, courtesy of Waste Management, the country’s largest recycling provider.

Is Rinsing Recyclables a Waste of Water?

Another concern people have is whether rinsing recyclables wastes too much water. Generally though, Masanet recommends recycling as an “environmental slam dunk,” for saving energy, resources, and pollution. Even when considering water use on your end and at the recycling center, recycling almost always leads to energy savings when we consider the water needed to produce virgin glass, steel, plastic, or aluminum.

To rinse at home, just scrape out the majority of any remaining food with a spatula, and rinse it. Better yet, after washing any dishes by hand, just quickly swoosh around your recycling in the dishwater you’ve already used. That’s good enough for bottles, cans, and jars heading for your recycling bin. That’ll also be enough to keep your recycling bin from getting too smelly. The recycling facility will provide any further rinsing.

And, you’re not wasting water in the process.

How Much Water Does Recycling Save?

Working with data from various sources, Masanet is able to draw some interesting conclusions.

  • For steel and aluminum, it takes 3-10 times as much water to produce virgin metals as it does to recycle them. In other words, even extensive rinsing won’t reverse the water benefits of recycling. (Supporting intel comes from EERE and the Aluminum Association.)
  • For glass, the water use of recycled glass is closer to that of producing standard glass, but still, we’re likely to save 1-2 pints of water for every glass pint bottle recycled. 
    Conclusion: Prudent rinsing should preserve the water benefits of recycling. (Info from a WRAP report.)
  • For PET and HDPE plastics, they are thoroughly washed as part of the recycling process given that they are sensitive to contaminants. Different life cycle analyses and different recycling processes lead to different conclusions about how much water recycled plastics save, with a range of negligible water savings to more than 30 liters for recycling a one-liter bottle. Masanet’s verdict: prudent rinsing is not likely to negate the water savings of recycling plastics, but reckless rinsing might. (Via WRAP.)
  • So rinsing is nearly always the better, green approach.

A huge point to keep in mind, reminds Masanet, is that saving water is only one of the many benefits of recycling. We also save energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and pollution to air and water. “So, even if we occasionally use more water than we should, the other environmental benefits really make recycling a slam dunk.”

Uncovering the Basic Rinsing Tips

To rinse or not to rinse may not always have a black and white answer (it usually is!), but here are a few general pointers, in those cases where rinsing is not strictly required:

  • Empty is preferable:
    • It’s greener to consume or at least trash the food/drink/cleaning product in containers before recycling them. In addition to attracting vermin and upping the ick factor in your bin for the brave personnel who have to handle it, excess debris in your recycling bin requires extra energy to clean and dispose.
  • Rinsing for single-stream recycling:
    • Combined bin peeps, (those with “single stream recycling” – which is becoming more and more the norm) it’s a good call to err on the side of rinsing, since paper and cardboard are especially sensitive to residue. If nothing else, though, it is important to dump all liquids out of containers to help keep the paper goods recyclable.
  • Conserve water when you rinse:
    • Scrape food out first with a wooden spoon or rubber spatula, then swish a little bit of water around in the container versus letting it sit under a running faucet. If you have several containers to rinse at once, just fill up a bowl and use the same water for the whole job.

EcoMyth Outcome: Myth Mostly True – You generally SHOULD rinse all recyclable containers

You really should rinse all containers prior to recycling, unless your local recycling provider says you don’t have to. Emptying containers and rinsing when it seems appropriate will help make the whole process more economical. The main thing is to find out best practices in your area and follow them as well as you can.

And, as always, if there’s a question, contact your local recycling facility by phone or visit their website. You’ll almost certainly learn something else interesting along the way.

Do One Green Thing

OneGreenThing-rinsing-recyclables

Type your zip code into Earth911’s curbside recycling guide for the simple do’s and don’ts in your area.

More ways to help:

  • Empty all containers prior to recycling them, to help keep paper and cardboard nice and dry.
  • Rinse conservatively–no need to go all Mr. Clean on that milk carton when a simple swish of water will do the trick.
  • Reduce use in the first place, as suggested by Masanet. How? Opt for items in bulk where possible.

The Multiplier Effect

If more people recycle their beverage containers, we’ll redirect salvageable stuff from the landfill and save resources needed for new material production. Here are three cool cases in point from the EPA:

  1. Five 2-liter recycled PET bottles produce enough fiberfill to make a ski jacket.
  2. Recycling one soda can save enough energy to run a computer for three hours.
  3. The energy saved from recycling one glass bottle will operate a 100-watt light bulb for four hours.

One More Thing…

A couple of more very important tips on recycling:

  • Great that you’re recycling! Next step – are you composting? Check out our guide to figuring out what’s compostable vs recycling.
  • Interested in composting those paper plates? Find out which paper plates are actually compostable (or not!)
  • Don’t put plastic bags in your recycling bin – ever. Bags are very likely to jam up the sorting equipment.
  • For any other potentially recyclable materials than the usual plastic bottles, cans, jars, paper and cardboard, be sure to check out your recycler’s website (or app!) to make something is recyclable.