Myth: All Bees Sting

Buzz-kill: Afraid Bees Are Out to Sting You?

It’s criminal—every day, in yards, picnic areas, and outdoor cafes across the country, scary bees stalk unsuspecting humans, slap-happy with sting power and thirsty for blood. Or…at least that’s how lots of people think of bees. Who among us has not frozen in cartoonish fear at the sound of a nearby buzz? Bug scientists, however, say we’re wrong to give bees such a bum rap.

A little sniffing around shows the odds of getting stung by bees are pretty slim. Experts report that virtually all bees one is likely to encounter flying from flower to flower are non-aggressive, and only 50 percent (i.e., only the females) have the capacity to sting in the first place. In fact, most stings don’t come from bees at all—they’re much more likely to come from yellowjackets, or, to a lesser degree, hornets or paper wasps.

Moreover, bees are a critical part of our food chain: They pollinate one in three foods we eat, after all. (Kind of a big deal, right?)

The Case on Bees

So, what exactly makes a bee a bee, and not one of those more aggressive stingers? First off, there’s no one single kind of bee. You can probably think of only two kinds offhand, in fact: honeybees and bumblebees are some of the best-known types. (That’s partly why they get their own single word spelling in the dictionary, while scientists stick with the two-word species names.) But even those well-known types only make up a fraction of the massively diverse bee world. There are around 20,000 species of these buzz-worthy insects on Earth. To put that into perspective, that’s more than the mammal, amphibian, and reptile species combined.

With so many variables to consider, we knew we needed help from some big-time experts in bee research: University of Illinois professor and recent Fulbright scholar Sydney Cameron, PhD, and the Chicago Botanic Garden’s Rebecca Tonietto, a PhD candidate at Northwestern. We also consulted several other venerable sources for info, listed right.

These experts devote their life’s work to learning about bees—and even they can only get a full grasp on a few species. In lieu of suggesting we all quit our jobs and go to bee school (though frankly it sounds pretty cool), we’ll stick with the basics for now. Here are some standard characteristics of bees:

Kickin’ it old school: Bees date back to the Cretaceous period, when they evolved alongside flowering plants (angiosperms). Check out this pic of the oldest bee on record, 100 million years and going strong.

Fuzz factor: Most bees are fuzzy, which means they can carry an electrostatic charge that helps pollen stick to them. Most also have pollen baskets of some sort, typically on their hindlegs—aka, “the bees’ knees.”

Can you smell me now? Bees use their multi-segmented antennae to detect smells.

Eye spy: Bees have five eyes. The two main ones in front look shimmery and pointed—similar to alien eyes you see in movies. The other three are domelike, smaller, and are perched on the top of the head to help them detect predators.

Spit happens: Female bees lay their eggs in nests and brood cells, which they line with saliva to waterproof and protect from pathogens. They deposit pollen here, too, so their young have something to eat while they develop.

House rules: Some bees (most notably honeybees and bumblebees) are the social, colony-inhabiting bees we’ve come to know. But the majority of the 4,000 bees native to the U.S. are actually solitary, living in individual holes in the ground or timber. This is also true of bees worldwide.

Flower power: Bees are not interested in you or your sandwich. They’re only in it for the flowers. We’ll elaborate below.

A Sting Operation…Or Not

Yes, female bees have the ability to sting you. (Reality check: Males don’t even have stingers!) But what matters is when and how often they use this power on people.

Though social bees occasionally sting people, it’s only because they’re defending what they sense as a threat to their colony or hive. When they’re just minding their own, ahem, beeswax on a flower, they will always be too busy with nectar or pollen to bother with a boring ol’ human.

Meanwhile, as most native bees are solitary creatures without a hive to defend, they’re only likely to sting you if they actually think you’re a flower—i.e., you’re wearing a bright yellow shirt and perfume. Chances are, though, if there are real flowers around, they’ll be perfectly content with them.

Those chances are so good, in fact, that Tonietto, who has been working in and amongst bees for six years now, has only been stung once. (That said, there are a few things she does to decrease those odds even further. Check EcoMyths’ own video series, The Bee Chronicles, for her insider tips.)

The bottom line is, bees aren’t the notorious stingers that people make them out to be. But more than simply being a non-threat to most humans, they’re actually incredibly critical to our daily life.

Bee Diversity Is the Spice (and a Bunch of Other Edible Stuff) of Life

Anyone who has seen Bee Movie knows the world would be a lot less colorful without bees. (Note, though, that the Jerry Seinfeld-helmed flick featured male honeybees with stingers, making it “totally misleading” according to Cameron.) Still, the movie’s core concept that we need bees holds true for all our bee species.

Insects, along with the help of birds and some small mammals, are responsible for pollinating about 90 percent of the flowering plants on Earth. A staggering one in three bites of all our food is made possible by this elite team of pollinators.

Bees help keep our agricultural fields rich with beans, tomatoes, peppers, peaches, apples, pumpkins, almonds, and berries, and our wilderness areas bursting with dazzling wildflowers. Some plants, like tomatoes, actually require wild bees, such as bumblebees, to pollinate them. Bee diversity matters, too. Some species prefer to go straight to the squash plant, while others do best with watermelons or tomatoes.

It’s useful to consider that bees and flowers evolved on this planet together, each forming half of one the world’s best partnerships. Like Monday nights and football, it’s possible that one could exist without the other, but it just wouldn’t be anywhere near as good. Bee pollination makes the world more beautiful, more colorful, and, well, more edible.

“Even if you think, ‘oh, I don’t care about beauty, but I do care about eating,’ bees are invaluable animals,” declares Cameron. “Most plants require active pollination by an insect, and 99 percent of those insects are going to be bees, 20,000 species of which have evolved to do exactly that. People can’t grasp a world without plants. But we need to grasp the fact that if bees go, plants go.”

EcoMyth Outcome: Myth Busted

All bees do not sting—in fact, only females have stingers and even among those, not all have a hive or colony to defend. More importantly, bees will always be far more interested in pollinating flowers than bothering to sting you.

One Green Thing You Can Do

Plant bee-friendly flowers that are rich with pollen and nectar, like columbine and aster, instead of ornamental flowers like impatiens and begonias. The BeeSpotter has more info here.

More ways to help:

The Multiplier Effect

Wild pollinators in the U.S. alone contribute to our agricultural industry to the tune of four to six billion dollars per year, according to the Great Sunflower Project.

Do You Need to Wash Your Recycling?

It’s time we had a little talk. Sometimes in life, we have dirty things we want to, ahem, recycle. This can mean we have to rinse containers before recycling them…except for when we don’t. Well, it’s certainly clearer than it used to be. But, the need to rinse really depends on the local recycling provider in your area. More often than not, though, a light rinsing is called for.

It used to be that some cities, such as Chicago, didn’t need residents to rinse their recyclables. The services took on the job of cleaning recyclable materials themselves. But Chicago and more areas like it now ask residents to remove the bulk of food residue.

This change is likely due to the potential contamination of paper, now that many recyclers have moved to curbside “single stream” recycling – where glass, plastic, paper and cardboard no longer need to be sorted into separate bins at home.

Another benefit of rinsing is that good washing helps deter rats and insects from trying to get at the recyclables before pick-up.

Even within facilities operated by the same waste management company, rules vary by location. That’s because the washing, sorting, and recycling equipment is continually being upgraded, improving its ability to handle more types of containers.

How Clean Do Those Containers Need to Be?

But it’s not that complicated. Waste Management, Inc. the largest recycling company in the world, says this about rinsing recyclable containers:

While all bottles, cans, and containers should be clean, dry, and free of most food waste before you place them in your recycling container, they don’t need to be spotless. The goal is to make sure they are clean enough to avoid contaminating other materials, like paper. Try using a spatula to scrape cans and jars, or using a small amount of water, shake the container to remove most residue.

Republic Services, Inc., another of the largest recyclers in the U.S., provides some simple recycling rinsing guidelines, and very easy to understand reasons for the rinse:

“Recyclables must be empty, clean and dry to prevent the contamination of other recyclables in the collection truck and at the recycling processing center. 

One ketchup bottle or not quite empty milk carton can cause your entire bin of otherwise perfectly recyclable items to be contaminated. Why? Because if the milk or ketchup leaks onto any paper, the paper is no longer recyclable. In some cases, the load won’t be accepted at many commercial processors. So, yes, it may end up in the trash.

“Unfortunately, contaminated materials have to be sent to the landfill, making your recycling efforts null and void.” But it’s easy to prevent this from happening by following these three steps:

Rinsing Recyclable Containers – Three Easy Steps

Step #1 – Empty.  
First, empty all liquid and residue from food and beverage containers. This makes a big difference for the next step.     

Step #2 – Clean.
Once excess liquids or solids are removed, give the containers a quick rinse – if needed – to clear any remaining residue. A rinse is usually needed for packaging that held milk, juice, sauces and condiments. A thorough wash isn’t called for, even here. No dish soap is necessary – a quick rinse and swish will do! 

Step #3 – Dry.
Now that your recyclables are empty and clean – let them dry out. They can sit upside down in the sink for a bit. Just don’t put wet containers in the bin.
And don’t stress if a little water remains. The rule of thumb is to never leave more than a teaspoon of liquid in a container. This will usually evaporate before your recyclables get picked up. 

Fortunately the answer in other areas is just a click away, thanks to Earth911’s recycling database, also available by app, which has compiled nationwide guidelines by zip code. Just enter the container type you want to recycle, and your ZIP code, and the search will identify the recycling facilities available for you. Then, check out the recycler’s guidelines.

As you’ll note, these recycling guidelines almost always say, “Please empty and rinse all containers and do not flatten containers.”

Why Aren’t Rinsing Requirements Consistent?

Why do the service requirements differ at all? And what happens if you don’t follow your local guidelines? We posed those and other questions to Eric Masanet, PhD, a Northwestern University Energy and Resource Systems Analysis Laboratory professor and researcher, and editor-in-chief of science journal Resources, Conservation and Recycling. His short take: It’s smart to follow the rinsing guidelines in your area, but not necessary to stress if you sometimes forget.

What happens if you don’t rinse recycling?

One big FAQ from people whose recycling service recommends rinsing is what happens when you forget to do it. Will your jar/bottle/can/what-have-you end up in a landfill anyway?It’s a valid question given that Waste Management, which manages half the country’s curbside recycling programs, used to state on its website that one dirty item can contaminate thousands of pounds of collected plastics. These days, WM just advises, “While all bottles, cans and containers should be clean, dry and free of most food waste before you place them in your recycling container, they don’t need to be spotless. “

But, yes, as Republic Services’ website says, “One ketchup bottle or not quite empty milk carton can cause your entire bin of otherwise perfectly recyclable items to be contaminated.”

So, please go ahead and rinse out any remaining liquids, in particular.

But the fact that an item is contaminated doesn’t relegate it to landfill status, explains Masanet. The recycling facility will use a mix of people and machines to sort then purify or clean everything according to type. Metal is the least sensitive to contaminants, he says, while plastic is so easily contaminated that even residue from a label can alter its chemistry and affect the quality of the recycled material in the end—exactly why recycling facilities have robust cleaning processes in place.

The real issue here is contamination of paper products in the same recycling bin. So, it’s more important to remove liquids than solids, like peanut butter.

More Reasons to Rinse Recyclable materials

Another downside of dirty recyclables is that contaminated recycled material has less market value—which means the recycling service provider has less to spend on things like improving service and green technology. So even though the recycling police won’t arrest you for not rinsing, Masanet advises complying with local guidelines so that the system is most efficient.

Curious about how recycling works once it leaves your bin? Take this video tour of a single stream recycling facility in Philly, courtesy of Waste Management, the country’s largest recycling provider.

Is Rinsing Recyclables a Waste of Water?

Another concern people have is whether rinsing recyclables wastes too much water. Generally though, Masanet recommends recycling as an “environmental slam dunk,” for saving energy, resources, and pollution. Even when considering water use on your end and at the recycling center, recycling almost always leads to energy savings when we consider the water needed to produce virgin glass, steel, plastic, or aluminum.

To rinse at home, just scrape out the majority of any remaining food with a spatula, and rinse it. Better yet, after washing any dishes by hand, just quickly swoosh around your recycling in the dishwater you’ve already used. That’s good enough for bottles, cans, and jars heading for your recycling bin. That’ll also be enough to keep your recycling bin from getting too smelly. The recycling facility will provide any further rinsing.

And, you’re not wasting water in the process.

How Much Water Does Recycling Save?

Working with data from various sources, Masanet is able to draw some interesting conclusions.

  • For steel and aluminum, it takes 3-10 times as much water to produce virgin metals as it does to recycle them. In other words, even extensive rinsing won’t reverse the water benefits of recycling. (Supporting intel comes from EERE and the Aluminum Association.)
  • For glass, the water use of recycled glass is closer to that of producing standard glass, but still, we’re likely to save 1-2 pints of water for every glass pint bottle recycled. 
    Conclusion: Prudent rinsing should preserve the water benefits of recycling. (Info from a WRAP report.)
  • For PET and HDPE plastics, they are thoroughly washed as part of the recycling process given that they are sensitive to contaminants. Different life cycle analyses and different recycling processes lead to different conclusions about how much water recycled plastics save, with a range of negligible water savings to more than 30 liters for recycling a one-liter bottle. Masanet’s verdict: prudent rinsing is not likely to negate the water savings of recycling plastics, but reckless rinsing might. (Via WRAP.)
  • So rinsing is nearly always the better, green approach.

A huge point to keep in mind, reminds Masanet, is that saving water is only one of the many benefits of recycling. We also save energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and pollution to air and water. “So, even if we occasionally use more water than we should, the other environmental benefits really make recycling a slam dunk.”

Uncovering the Basic Rinsing Tips

To rinse or not to rinse may not always have a black and white answer (it usually is!), but here are a few general pointers, in those cases where rinsing is not strictly required:

  • Empty is preferable:
    • It’s greener to consume or at least trash the food/drink/cleaning product in containers before recycling them. In addition to attracting vermin and upping the ick factor in your bin for the brave personnel who have to handle it, excess debris in your recycling bin requires extra energy to clean and dispose.
  • Rinsing for single-stream recycling:
    • Combined bin peeps, (those with “single stream recycling” – which is becoming more and more the norm) it’s a good call to err on the side of rinsing, since paper and cardboard are especially sensitive to residue. If nothing else, though, it is important to dump all liquids out of containers to help keep the paper goods recyclable.
  • Conserve water when you rinse:
    • Scrape food out first with a wooden spoon or rubber spatula, then swish a little bit of water around in the container versus letting it sit under a running faucet. If you have several containers to rinse at once, just fill up a bowl and use the same water for the whole job.

EcoMyth Outcome: Myth Mostly True – You generally SHOULD rinse all recyclable containers

You really should rinse all containers prior to recycling, unless your local recycling provider says you don’t have to. Emptying containers and rinsing when it seems appropriate will help make the whole process more economical. The main thing is to find out best practices in your area and follow them as well as you can.

And, as always, if there’s a question, contact your local recycling facility by phone or visit their website. You’ll almost certainly learn something else interesting along the way.

Do One Green Thing

OneGreenThing-rinsing-recyclables

Type your zip code into Earth911’s curbside recycling guide for the simple do’s and don’ts in your area.

More ways to help:

  • Empty all containers prior to recycling them, to help keep paper and cardboard nice and dry.
  • Rinse conservatively–no need to go all Mr. Clean on that milk carton when a simple swish of water will do the trick.
  • Reduce use in the first place, as suggested by Masanet. How? Opt for items in bulk where possible.

The Multiplier Effect

If more people recycle their beverage containers, we’ll redirect salvageable stuff from the landfill and save resources needed for new material production. Here are three cool cases in point from the EPA:

  1. Five 2-liter recycled PET bottles produce enough fiberfill to make a ski jacket.
  2. Recycling one soda can save enough energy to run a computer for three hours.
  3. The energy saved from recycling one glass bottle will operate a 100-watt light bulb for four hours.

One More Thing…

A couple of more very important tips on recycling:

  • Great that you’re recycling! Next step – are you composting? Check out our guide to figuring out what’s compostable vs recycling.
  • Interested in composting those paper plates? Find out which paper plates are actually compostable (or not!)
  • Don’t put plastic bags in your recycling bin – ever. Bags are very likely to jam up the sorting equipment.
  • For any other potentially recyclable materials than the usual plastic bottles, cans, jars, paper and cardboard, be sure to check out your recycler’s website (or app!) to make something is recyclable.